At a Glance
Both personal loans and credit cards can be used to make or fund purchases. Both require that you fill out an application, go through an approval process, and either get approved or denied. Factors taken into consideration include your credit score, credit history, income, and others. Both also typically have specific interest rates, monthly payments, fees, amount limits, and more.
And, using one or the other without having a budget and financial plan in place can lead to accumulation of debt, interest, fees, and other problems.
In this article, learn more about:
- Overview of personal loans vs. credit cards
- When to use personal loans?
- When to use credit cards?
- Pros and cons of personal loans
- Pros and cons of credit cards
- How personal loans and credit cards are similar?
- How loans and credit cards affect your credit?
- Alternatives for personal loans and credit cards
- Personal loans for bad credit
- Credit cards for bad credit
- Personal loan vs. credit card for debt consolidation
Overview of personal loan vs. credit cards
While there are a few similarities, there are also a few key differences between a personal loan and a credit card, primarily in that they are distinct types of credit:
- Function as installment loans, which means you receive the funds in a lump sum up front and repay the loan in payments each month over a certain period.
- Can be secured or unsecured.
- Have an end date, or term, when the loan will be paid off, which makes them easier to budget.
- Can have lower interest rates for borrowers with excellent credit.
- Funds can be used for about anything.
- Are revolving credit, so you borrow as much as you need (up to your limit) and your payments depend on the outstanding balance.
- Can be secured or unsecured.
- Do not have interest if the balance is paid in full each month.
- Have higher interest rates in general.
- There is no end date, and if a balance is carried from month-to-month, it can be difficult to get out of debt.
- Can be used to purchase or pay for about anything.
- Are more convenient for everyday use.
When to use personal loans?
A personal loan may be best for large, one-time expenses such as home renovations, car repairs, paying for a vacation or wedding, medical bills, or an emergency. Or they can also be used when consolidating debt into one, single loan with a lower interest rate.
Typically, personal loan amounts can range from $1,000 to $100,000, so if you need to borrow a lot for a longer period, a personal loan may be the best option. Plus, you are able to request how much you borrow.
It’s best to consider getting a personal loan when you have great to excellent credit, because this increases your chances of getting a better loan term and lower APR.
Related: Reasons to Get a Personal Loan
When to use credit cards?
On the other hand, credit cards are meant for smaller or more frequent, everyday purchases that can be paid off quickly. They are also great for small emergencies. Experts recommend only spending as much as you can afford to pay off each month to avoid carrying a balance and accumulating interest.
There are different types of credit cards, some offering rewards or cash back for spending, so using these cards to make regular purchases can benefit you in additional ways in the long run.
Balance transfer credit cards can also be used to consolidate credit card debt. These cards typically have a 0% introductory APR period, which means you can consolidate and start paying off credit card debt without accumulating interest. This can help save you money.
Pros and cons of personal loans
Pros and cons of credit cards
How personal loans and credit cards are similar?
Getting approved for both a personal loan and a credit card depends primarily on your creditworthiness (credit score and history) and finances. It’s important to both lenders and credit card companies that you have a history of repaying debt and can continue to do so in the future. In both cases, the higher your score and the more qualified you are, the better rates and features you’re likely to qualify for.
Additionally, personal loan and credit card funds are both unsecured. This means you can use them to pay for just about anything, and you don’t have to have any assets as collateral in order to qualify.
How a credit card or loan affects your credit?
Whether you apply for a personal loan or a credit card, it will trigger a hard credit inquiry. This will cause your credit score to drop by a few points for a short period of time and remain on your credit history for two years.
Because payment history makes up 35% of your credit score, ensuring you pay your personal loan and credit card bills on time each month can help improve your score. Personal loan payments typically affect your credit less than credit card payments, though, since they have fixed monthly payments vs. with a credit card the payment can vary each month.
With a credit card, it’s also important to pay your balance in full each month because it shows you’re a more creditworthy borrower and it can have a bigger impact on your score.
Length of credit history and credit mix are also factors in calculating your score, so keeping your credit card open for as long as possible can help improve your score vs. paying off a loan can decrease your score temporarily since you’re taking away a type of credit.
Alternatives to personal loans and credit cards
If you need funds, personal loans and credit cards are not your only option. In fact, depending on what you need the funds for and your credit score, there could be multiple options available:
1. Debt consolidation loan: Like a personal loan, these loans are specifically designed for consolidating debt. Ideally, the loan has a lower interest rate which can help you pay off the debt faster and save you money.
2. Personal line of credit: Works similarly to both a credit card and personal loan. Once approved, you have a credit limit you can withdraw from, like a credit card, up to the limit. You would pay interest on what you borrow.
Learn more: How a personal line of credit works
3. Peer-to-peer loan: Some online lending platforms match you with an investor who can fund your needs, and you would get the cash. You would be charged interest and may have to pay a loan origination fee, but the interest can be low if you have excellent credit.
Related: How Does Peer-to-Peer Lending Work
4. Home equity loan or HELOC: If you own your home, HEL and HELOCs are lending options that allow you to borrow against your home’s equity. These often have longer repayment periods and lower interest rates, but you can lose your home if you do not make the payments.
Learn more: Home Equity Loans vs. HELOC
5. Credit union loans: If you belong to a credit union, you may qualify for these loans. Factors other than your credit score can help you qualify.
Related: How credit union personal loans work
6. Cash-out refinance: This is also an option if you own your home as it replaces your existing mortgage with a new one that is larger than your current balance. Then, you can withdraw the difference and use those funds for almost anything. The downside is you can lose your home if you don’t repay the loan.
Related: How Does a Cash-Out Refinance Work?
Personal loans for bad credit
Even if you have poor credit, you may still be able to qualify for a personal loan. Most often you’ll find success with online lenders, who tend to be more flexible with requirements (compared to traditional banks or credit unions), or with peer-to-peer lenders.
However, note that even if you are approved for a loan, you will likely have much higher interest rates and be subject to fees such as origination fees, early pay-off fees, and others. It is important to do your research to compare lenders to find the best one for you. You should also try to improve your score before applying for a loan to increase your chances of the application being accepted and qualifying for lower APR.
Related: Pre-qualified personal loans
Some examples of lenders who work with borrowers with fair or poor credit include:
- Avant (minimum 580)
- BestEgg (minimum 640)
- LendingClub (minimum 600)
- OppLoans (no minimum)
- Peerform (minimum 600)
- Upstart (minimum 300)
Credit cards for bad credit
Like personal loans, you may still be able to qualify for a credit card even if you have poor credit. Most of the time, these would be secured cards. With a secured card, a borrower provides capital toward the card’s balance limit. These terms can vary, so be sure to read the cardholder agreement carefully to understand the terms for your card.
Personal loan vs. credit card for debt consolidation
Whether to use a personal loan or a credit card to consolidate debt depends on a few factors, including what type of debt you’re consolidating and your credit score.
Start by checking your credit score. Most credit cards require a score of at least 690 or above, and others require a score of 720 to qualify for the card. If you don’t have a great score, you may not be able to qualify for a new card so a personal loan may be your only option. Some personal loan lenders approve borrowers with a score as low as 580.
Next, you can use a personal loan calculator to estimate how much it would cost to transfer your debts to one loan. Then, calculate how much a 0% APR credit card offer may cost you. This can help you determine which option would be most cost effective in the long run. Be sure to include balance transfer and other fees and interest rates.
Remember, the better your credit score, the better the interest rate you’ll qualify for. If the interest rate for a debt consolidation loan isn’t lower than your existing debt, it may not be worth it, and a credit card may be a better option. On the other hand, you should only choose a credit card if you’re able to repay the debt within the 0% APR introductory period. Otherwise, you may owe more in accrued interest.
There are a few differences between personal loans and credit cards, including the type of credit, how you receive the funds (lump sum vs. as you need it), funding limits, interest rates, and repayment terms. They can also be used differently depending on what you need to buy or fund.
Both personal loans and credit cards can be used to build credit. The best one for you depends on your personal situation and financial needs. If you do not need a considerable sum for a large purchase to pay back over time, using a credit card may be better. However, it is critical to pay off the balance in full each month to avoid negative consequences on your score.
Typically, personal loans have lower interest rates than credit cards. Average personal loan interest rates can range from 3% to 36% depending on your credit score, but as of January 2022, the average rate was 10.28%. On the other hand, the average interest rate for a credit card is between 14.51% and 18.26%.
Related: Credit Cards with Low Interest Rates
A credit card is a type of revolving credit that gives borrowers access to funds to then repay each month. It’s not technically a type of loan, though you are able to use the credit to make purchases when you may not have the cash on hand.